Cecilia Helena de Salles Oliveira Universidade de São pólo (USP). São paul - SP - Brasil. 2 assentadas professor at a Paulista Museum of ns University of elas Paulo and professor of the Graduate program in social History at USP. Http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0314-271XAbout ns author


Você está assistindo: A historia da independencia do brasil

Resumo

Visando colaborar alcançar as perguntas sugeridas pelo fórum “Às vésperas a partir de 200 estou vivendo da Independência a partir de Brasil: o que e gostar discutir?”, 1 artigo procura morada o tema centro das discriminação elegendo como eixo analítico as relações entrou política, cultivo e historiografia. Na em primeiro lugar parte, o texto recupera e desdobra argumento em torno da compreendo da Independência gostar de tema da polícia e como movimento revolucionário eu imploro seu perdão pautou o pensamento e a movimento dos protagonistas eu imploro seu perdão vivenciaram naquela separação de portugal e der formação dá Império no século XIX. Na segunda-feira parte, procura articular o discutir político e historiográfico desenvolvido vir longo do século xix e naquela emergência de representações e recriações visuais a partir de tema, boa como dos episódios e personagens der ele conectados. Ministérios objetivo primitivo é jogado interrogações sobre escrito da elétrico e narrativas visuais que ainda hoje povoam der fala de historiadores e o imaginários da a empresa brasileira, visando estou procurando por isso seus fundamentos e as razões de seus força persuasiva.

Palavras-chave:História da Independência; escrita da História; política; relatório visuais


Abstract

In order to collaborate with ns questions argued by ns Forum “On ns eve of ns 200th anniversary of the Independence the Brazil: what and how to discuss?”, this file seeks to address the quartel general theme of the discussions, choosing the relations between politics, culture and historiography together an analytical axis. In the o primeiro dia part, the retrieves e unfolds disagreements around a understanding of self-reliance as der theme that politics and as a revolutionary movement that guided the thinking e action of ns protagonists who experienced a separation são de Portugal e the formation of ns Empire in a 19th century. In the second part, it seeks to articulate ns political and historiographical discutir developed during the 19th century e the emergence of intuitivo representations and recreations of the theme, too as the episodes and characters associated to it. A primary target is come raise concerns about ns writings of history e visual narratives the still this day populate ns speech of historians and the imaginary of Brazilian society, in stimulate to find their foundations e the reasons para their persuasive strength.

Keywords :Independence history; policy; history writing; visual narratives


advent

“... Ns past is no free. It is governed, managed, preserved, explained, told, commemorated or hated. Even if it is it is commemorated or hidden, that remains a fundamental problem of ns present. Ao this past, typically distant, much more or less imagined, we ser estar ready to fight ..... Us erase it, forget it, put it ahead of various other episodes, walk back, rewrite history ... ”. Régine Robin 3 3 ROBIN, Régine. Saturation memory. Trans. C. Dia & G. Costa. Campinas, Ed. Da UNICAMP, 2016, p. 31.




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“... Ns statement the we viver in a time marked by ns power of images - e vision as uma of the fundamentais meanings para the apprehension e decoding of a world approximately us has end up being commonplace ... What come see, as soon as it seems that we have the right to see whatever by virtue of the means placed at ns service of composing history? como as to reflect ~ above this complex relationship between the visible and the invisible, which is at the very source of ns historian’s work, when the means of visibility of a past it seems to be ~ infinitely extended by ns technical capacity of archiving a past? ... ” Manoel Luiz Salgado guimarães 4 4 GUIMARÃES, Manoel Luiz Salgado. Vendo ministérios passado: representação e escrita da história. Proceedings of ns USP Paulista Museum, vol. 15, n. 2, Jul/Dec, 2007, p. 11. .


Interpretations about the Independence that Brazil, bequeathed by a historiography created between the 19th and mid 20th centuries, have actually undergone profound transforms in ns last thirty years. Concomitantly with a academic manufacturing resulting from research work occurred within a scope of postgraduate program in history throughout a country5 5 Consult, among others, the following works: BRESCIANI, maria Stella & NAXARA (ORG). Memória e (Res)sentimentos: indagações cerca de uma perguntas sensível. 2nd edition. Campinas, editor da UNICAMP, 2004; GUIMARÃES, Lucia maria Paschoal & PRADO, maria Emília (org). O liberalismo no brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro, Revan/UERJ, 2001; CARVALHO, josé Murilo (org). étnico e direitos civis no Império: novos horizontes. Rio de Janeiro, civilização Brasileira, 2007; RIBEIRO, Gladys Sabina (org). Brasileiro e cidadãos: moderno política, 1822/1930. São Paulo, Alameda, 2008; GRINBERG, Keila & SALLES, ricardo (org). O brasil Imperial, 1808/1889. Fluviais de Janeiro, civilização Brasileira, 2009, 3 vols.; MARSON, Izabel Andrade & OLIVEIRA, Cecilia Helena L. De Salles (org). Monarquia, liberdade e negócios enquanto Brasil, 1780/1860. São Paulo, EDUSP/CNPq/CAPES/Museu Paulista da USP, 2013. , pesquisar groups to be organized, following a example coordinated by István Jancsó in the 2000s6 6 This is ns thematic project: naquela fundação do estado e da étnica brasileiros, 1750/1850. São Paulo, FAPESP/Universidade de São pólo (IEB/MP)/Universidade federal de são Paulo, 2000/2008. This collective work, which lugged together researchers from several universities in ns country, resulted in a collections: JANCSÓ, István (org) Brasil: formação do estado e da nação. Elas Paulo, FAPESP/HUCITEC, 2003; JANCSÓ, István (org). Independência: biografia e historiografia. Elas Paulo, FAPESP/HUCITEC, 2005; OLIVEIRA, Cecilia H together de S; BITTENCOURT, Vera Lucia Nagib & COSTA, Wilma Peres(org). Soberania e conflito: configurações do bateau Nacional no brasil do centro XIX. São Paulo, Hucitec/FAPESP, 2010; BERBEL, Márcia; MARQUESE, rafael & PARRON, Tâmis. Escravidão e política. Brasil-Cuba, 1790/1850. São Paulo, HUCITEC/FAPESP, 2010. , which, bringing with each other scholars em ~ different institutions, contributed enormously come expand, sophisticate and make an ext complex a questions raised about that historic period.

In a current phase of knowledge, the Independence that Brazil was detached a partir de the “national memory/history”7 7 On a subject, view especially: NORA, Pierre. Présent, nation, mémoire. Paris, Gallimard, 2011. the articulated it to cut-out episodes - such as a proclamation the September 7, 1822 - to broke up characters and situations, e particularly, naquela restrictive expertise of the processes underway at the beginning of ns 19th century, as it foi ~ associated with the chronological e symbolic frame of an “emancipation”8 8 On a historical interpretations of ns expressions “emancipation” e “independence”, see: LYRA, maria de Lourdes Viana. Celebremente da Independência: marcos e representações simbólicas. Revista brasileiros de História. Eles são Paulo, ANPUH/Contexto, vol. 15, n. 29, 1995, p. 173-206; NEVES, Lucia maria Bastos Pereira das. Emancipação política. In: VAINFAS, Ronaldo (dir). Dicionário do brasil Imperial, 1822/1889. Rio de Janeiro, Objetiva, 2000, p. 225-228; OLIVEIRA, Cecilia Helena L. De Salles. A Astúcia Liberal. Industry relations and political jobs in fluxo de Janeiro, 1820/1824. Bragança Paulista, EDUSF/Ícone, 1999. that tiny or practically nothing appeared to represent para society and politics at a time.

Despite a methodological and thematic diversity of ns most recent contributions the historians committed to ns period, that is possible to identify some assumptions of analysis that guide knowledge accumulated since in ~ least ns 1980s.

Research the discussed the emergence and unfolding of political e power projects distinct a partir de the proposal of constitutional monarchy acquired relevance, identifying the both a monarchical option e the building and construction of an empire in America, applied themselves top top other options without them durante longer mobilizing segment of society in ns years 1820 e 18309 9 See, amongst others: BASILE, Marcelo. Ezequiel Correa são de Santos: um jacobino na corte do rio de Janeiro. Fluviais de Janeiro, FGV, 2001; BASILE, Marcelo. O rico em construção: projeto de brasil e movimento política na cortar regencial. Doctorate thesis. Fluxo de Janeiro, UFRJ, 2004; FONSECA, Silvia Carla Pereira de Brito. Naquela ideia de República no Império a partir de Brasil: fluxo de janeiro e Pernambuco, 1824/1834. Doctorate thesis. Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, 2004; BITTENCOURT, Vera Lucia Nagib. De Alteza habilidade a Imperador. O governo de D. Pedro, abril/1821-outubro/1822. Doctorate thesis. Eles são Paulo, USP, 2007; OLIVEIRA, carlos Eduardo frança de. Designers do Império, apoiadores da província: São paulo e Minas visão global na o progresso de fazendo do estado nacional e de potência locais, 1824/1834. Porto Alegre, ANPUH/Editora da PUC do RGS, 2017; ALVES, Walquiria de rezende Tofanelli. Expectativa para naquela “nação portuguesa” no contexto da Independência: o projeto de Joaquim josé da Silva Maia, 1821/1823. Master’s Thesis. Campinas, Unicamp/ Depto de História, 2018. . Exploring e disseminating documentary collection of naquela varied nature, such as periodicals, solitary publications, official e private correspondence, government decisions in rio de Janeiro and other provinces, plenty of studies revealed der spectrum of political proposals complex, nuanced and rooted in various segments of colônia society, breaking ns interpretation that, at the time, social relations were based on binary oppositions simplifying ns internal dynamics chin to the society10 10 See, amongst others, ns papers of ns collection O brasil Imperial, organized by Keila Grinberg and Ricardo Salles, cited; NEVES, Lucia mary Bastos Pereira das. Corcundas e Constitucionais. A cultivo política da Independência, 1820/1822. Rio de Janeiro, Revan/FAPERJ, 2003; MOREL, Marco. As transformações a partir de espaços públicos. Imprensa, atores políticos e sociabilidades na bairros imperial, 1820/1840. Eles são Paulo, HUCITEC, 2005; LEME, Marisa Saenz. Soberania, centralização, federação e união no discurso jornalístico da Independência. Revista são de Instituto histórico e geográfico Brasileiro. Fluviais de Janeiro, n. 440, 2009, p. 25-45; CARVALHO, josé Murilo; BASTOS, Lucia; BASILE, Marcelo (org). Autocracia literária. Folhetos da Independência, 1820/1823. Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 2014, 4 volumes. . Concomitantly with a evidence and analysis of political projects and their repercussions, ns focus of fist shifted são de the Court of rio de janeiro to other cities and provinces, which earned a space-territorial expertise of manifestations e claims that had grande been subjected to a fixed watch at fluxo de Janeiro, as if the Court e the city that housed that could expressão the diversity and multiplicity of situations that had actually occurred, porque o example, in Belém, Salvador, Rio compridas de São peter or also in the regions of Montevideo e Buenos Aires11 11 See, amongst others: a papers of a collection soberania e Conflito, aforementioned; PIMENTA, joão Paulo Garrido. Naquela Independência do brasil e naquela experiência hispano-americana, 1808/1822. Eles são Paulo, HUCITEC, 2015; e PIMENTA, joão Paulo Garrido. Vezes e espaços das Independências. Naquela inserção do brasil no mundo ocidental, 1780/1830. São Paulo, Intermeios/ PPGHS-USP, 2017. .

The acknowledgment that freedom was the result of political struggles and the clash in between simultaneous projects - return divergent com regard to a construction of the nation e the instances of strength - additionally came a partir de the advancement of investigations that, instead of donate the place of a State and its organization, rotate to economic production, labor relationships and, notably, to a production and irradiation of culture and political culture12 12 See, amongst others: FERES JÚNIOR, joão (org). Léxico da elétrico dos conceitos políticos no Brasil. Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 2009; GUIMARÃES, Manoel Luiz Salgado. Historiografia e nação enquanto Brasil, 1837/1857. Fluxo de Janeiro, EDUERJ, 2011; MOREL, marchar & FERREIRA, Tânia maria Bessone (org). História e imprensa: representações cultural e realista de poder. Fluviais de Janeiro, DP&A/FAPERJ, 2006; AZEVEDO, C; ROLLEMBERG, D; KNAUSS, P; BICALHO, M. F. & Quadrat, S (org). Cultivo política, comemoro e historiografia. Rio de Janeiro, editor da FGV, 2009; ABREU, M; SOIHET, R & GONTIJO, R. (org). Lavoura política e leituras dá passado: historiografia e ensinar de História. Rio de Janeiro, civilização Brasileira/FAPERJ, 2007. . Studies and reflections that, deep questioning the “delay” e the obvious misfits between colonial society and the construction of sector relations, indicated, on ns contrary, the compatibility between liberalism and slavery e the load of ns so-called “second slavery” in a movement of development of coffee production in ns south-central e sugar production in ns northeast, poles of support of political groups e pressure that ended up driving a configuration of ns Empire e the monarchy in the first decades of the 1800s, deserve naquela special mention13 13 On the subject, see, among others, a works of: FRANCO, mary Sylvia de Carvalho. Homens livres na atribuição escravocrata. First Edition. Elas Paulo, IEB/USP, 1968; TOMICH, Dale. Pele prisma da escravidão. Eles são Paulo, EDUSP, 2011; MARQUESE, rafael de Bivar & SALLES, ricardo (org). Escravidão e capitalismo histórico no século XIX: Cuba, brasil e afirma Unidos. Rio de Janeiro, civilização Brasileira, 2016. .

It is likewise worth mentioning, in ns formulation of a field that knowledge e assumptions in which the analyses on Independence ~ ~ currently located, the studies on the cultural and conceptual universe mutual by the protagonists of ns separation that Portugal and the company of a Empire. A range of functions that addressed ns press of ns time e other forms of literary and artistic expression, together as the works edited by Tipografia Régia during ns Johannine period and the production of the academy of well Arts, brought to the debate concepts e forms of expertise that showed longe circulation and appropriation that ideas a partir de both sides of a Atlantic, also as a dissemination of references of politics thought e action that found their main concentrates in ns rest the America. In this paper definition too, what a most recent studies show is ns opposite of feasible incompatibilities. A characters who acted in that period used, transformed and reinterpreted - according to interests, instant needs and long-term projects - arguments, metaphors and premises that were component of ns speeches and narratives of the time, and that developed unprecedented experiences in the European and americano continents e functioning that constitutional e representative governments14 14 See, amongst others, the collection Monarquia, liberalismo e negócios enquanto Brasil, 1780/1860, aforementioned; COSTA, Wilma Peres. Adentraram tempos e mundos: Chateaubriand e der outra América. Almanack. Unifesp, vol. 11, 2010, p. 1-21; BARBOSA, Silvana Mota et ovo (org). Pesquisar de história e política enquanto segundo reinado. Arbitragem de Fora, Clio, 2018; BARBOSA, Silvana Mota, BARATA, alexandre & MARTINS, maria Fernanda (org). São de poderes dá Império: cultura política, networks sociais e situação de potência no brasil do centro XIX. Arbitragem de Fora, editor da Universidade comunidade de juiz de Fora, 2014; SLEMIAN, Andrea. Sob ministérios império do leis. Eles são Paulo, HUCITEC, 2009. .

In this sense, ns disconnection of freedom from naquela singular event, make it possible to recuperate its dimension as political theme, treated exhaustively within a different constituent components of a then Portuguese Empire, especially em ~ the second half of the 18th century15 15 Consult, especially: LYRA, maria de Lourdes Viana. Der utopia do poderoso império. Fluxo de Janeiro, Sette Letras, 1994. . In addition, the understanding of a impossibility of investigating self-reliance outside a horizons of the liberal revolutions that occurred in the late eighteenth century e in ns nineteenth century in both europe and américa gained strength16 16 See a papers in a collections organized by István Jancsó, aforementioned, also as: GUERRA, François-Xavier. Modernidad e Independencias. Ensayos sobre leitura revoluciones hispánicas. Madrid, Mapfre, 1992; CHIARAMONT, joseph Carlos. Nación Y bang em Iberoamerica. El linguaje politico en tiempos de las Independencias. Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2004; PIMENTA, joão Paulo Garrido. A Independência do brasil como revolução: história e presente de um linha clássico. Biografia da Historiografia, vol. 3, 2009, p. 53-82; MARSON, Izabel Andrade & OLIVEIRA, Cecilia Helena L. De Salles. Introduction. In: Ob.cit, p. 9-36. . The is to say, the separatist movement integrates ns political, social e cultural procedures that resulted in ns formation that nations and national says in the western world, i m sorry not apenas um brings the events that emerged in Portuguese america closer come other contemporary experiences, but additionally causes a resizing that aspects e problems the made them unique.

In this sense, there are two key objectives the this paper. Top top the one hand, to resume the debate on the links between the Independence movement and the character of revolution attributed come it through politicians e historians, particularly in a nineteenth century. On ns other hand, to cast questions about the mediations the intertwined the Independence revolution, taped in works of diverse natureza during ns 1800s, e their artistic and visual representations, projected on engravings, sculptures and historical painting são de that exact same period.

Independence e revolution

According to Duby, “sensational events”17 17 DUBY, Georges. O domingo de Bouvines: 27 de julho de 1214. Trans. Maria Cristina Frias. Fluviais de Janeiro, paz e Terra, 1993, p. 10. - like ns arrival of ns Portuguese Court in the cidade of fluxo de janeiro in 1808; a creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in 1815; a officialization of the rupture between the Kingdoms of Brazil e Portugal in 1822; the granting of the Constitutional Charter of the Empire in 1824; and the Abdication the D. Peter I in 1831 - deserve to be invaluable in understanding the historical scenarios in which they were evident. The great an effect they have acquired, early to ns “impressions that witnesses”, a “illusions that historians” e the “torrent of discourses” e versions that cercos them18 18 Idem, ibidem, p. 10-12. , invites them come problematize them and to look for in their traces e remains the most comprehensive and profound activities of which were striking expression. It additionally invites us to remember, de acordo com to a same historian, the events are manufactured and immortalized through der complex, “rarely chaste game, that memory and forgetfulness”.19 19 Idem, ibidem, p. 12.